Evaluating Urban Wetland Restorations: Case Studies for Assessing Connectivity and Function


Of or relating to nonindigenous material (e.g., sediment deposits in a river). Opposite of autochthonous (see below).
Of or relating to material that originated in its present position (e.g., from the decomposition of plants). Opposite of allochthonous (see above).
Of or relating to autotrophs, organisms capable of synthesizing their own food from inorganic substances using light or chemical energy (e.g., green plants, algae, and certain bacteria).
Bacterial growth efficiency (BGE)
The fraction of organic carbon consumed by bacteria that is incorporated into biomass.
Of or related to organisms (e.g., protozoa, nematodes) living on the sediment surface under a water column, such as sea or lake bottoms.
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA)
Enacted in 1980, this law (also known as Superfund) created a tax on the chemical and petroleum industries and provided broad federal authority to respond directly to releases or threatened releases of hazardous substances that may endanger public health or the environment. (Source:
Chronosequence approach
A "space-for-time" substitution used to examine long-term trends in which systems of different ages are compared to determine the trajectory of a metric, instead of monitoring a single system over time.
Combined sewer overflow
The discharge into waterways during rainstorms of untreated sewage and other pollutants via combined sewers carrying both sanitary sewage and storm-water runoff from streets, parking lots, and rooftops.
Dredge spoils
The sediment removed from beneath a body of water during dredging.
Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP)
A technique developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for evaluating and predicting the suitability of changing habitats for species and communities based on ecological principles.
Of or relating to heterotrophs, organisms that cannot synthesize their own food and are dependent on complex organic substances for nutrition (e.g., fish, humans).
Horizon markers
Visually distinct substances (such as feldspar) laid down on surfaces of aquatic study areas to measure the vertical accumulation (buildup) of sediment.
Of or relating to infauna, benthic organisms (see above) that dig into the sediment bed or construct tubes or burrows.
Various forms of a chemical element (e.g., carbon) that have different numbers of neutrons and therefore different atomic mass.
Isotopic signatures
Ratios of certain isotopes (see above) that accumulate in organisms and can be used by researchers to profile food webs.
An animal, such as an insect or mollusk, that lacks a backbone or spinal column and can be seen by the naked eye.
Water-loving vascular plants (grasses, rushes, shrubs, etc.).
A group of populations of the same species that exist at the same time but in different places.
A standard of measurement for estimating or indicating a specific characteristic or process.
Of or pertaining to mutualism, an interaction between two species that is beneficial to both.
Nitrogen fixation
The transformation of gaseous nitrogen into nitrogenous compounds (e.g., ammonia), usually by way of nitrogen-fixing soil and/or aquatic bacteria.
Of or relating to plankton—tiny aquatic organisms that drift with water movements, generally having no locomotive organs.
Primary production
The rate at which biomass is produced by photosynthetic or chemosynthetic organisms.
Any structure that functions in plant propagation or dispersal (e.g., a spore or seed).
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)
Enacted in 1976, RCRA (often pronounced "rick-rah") gave the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency control over the generation, transportation, treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous waste.
A natural reservoir that can receive energy, species, or materials without undergoing change. Opposite of "source" (see below).
A natural net exporter of energy, species, or materials (see above).
Stable isotope
Any naturally occurring, nondecaying isotope (see above) of an element. Many elements have several stable isotopes. For example, carbon (C) has carbon 12 (12C) and carbon 13 (13C).
The sequential change in vegetation and the animals associated with it, either in response to an environmental change or induced by the intrinsic properties of the organisms themselves.
Tidal prism
Volume of water that is drawn into a bay or estuary from the ocean during flood tide (i.e., a rising tide).
Of or relating to feeding habits or the food relationship between different organisms in a food chain. Organisms can be divided into different trophic levels such as herbivores and predators.
Wetland Evaluation Technique (WET)
A water-quality and watershed analytical model developed for the Federal Highway Administration for conducting assessment of wetland functions and values.